Historical Context

Muhammad Bin Qasim - Conquest of Sindh

Imād ad-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Qāsimath-Thaqafī (Arabic: عماد الدين محمد بن القاسم الثقفي‎; c. 31 December 695 – 18 July 715 was an Umayyad general who conquered the Sindh and Multan regions along the Indus River (now a part ofPakistan) for the Umayyad Caliphate. He was born and raised in the city of Taif (in modern-day Saudi Arabia). Qasim's conquest of Sindh and southern-most parts of Multan enabled further Islamic expansion into India.

711 A.D Sindh’s Conquest - Muhammad Bin Qasim with his troops
Muhammad Bin Qasim's Expedition of Sindh's Conquest in 711 AD
The Mughal Empire During Different Periods

The Mughal Empire : 1526 – 1857

The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the founder Babur's victory overIbrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). TheMughal emperors were Central Asian Turco-Mongols belonging to the Timurid dynasty, who claimed direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded theTimurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior. He also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. SomeRajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors wereMuslims.

In 1739, the Mughals were crushingly defeated in the Battle of Karnal by the forces of Nader Shah, the founder of the Afsharid dynasty in Persia, and Delhi wassacked and looted, drastically accelerating their decline. During the following century Mughal power had become severely limited and the last emperor, Bahadur Shah II, had authority over only the city of Shahjahanabad. He issued a firman supporting the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and following the defeat was therefore tried by the British East India Company for treason, imprisoned and exiled to Rangoon.[25] The last remnants of the empire were formally taken over by the British, and the Government of India Act 1858 let the British Crown formally assume direct control of India in the form of the new British Raj.

British Colonization : 1600’s - 1947

At the end of the 16th century, England and the United Netherlands began to challenge Portugal's monopoly of trade with Asia, forming private joint-stock companies to finance the voyages: the English (later British) East India Company, and the Dutch East India Company, which were chartered in 1600 and 1602 respectively. These companies were intended to carry on the lucrative spice trade, and they focused their efforts on the areas of production, the Indonesian archipelago and especially the "Spice Islands", and on India as an important market for the trade. The close proximity of London and Amsterdam across the North Sea, and the intense rivalry between England and the Netherlands, inevitably led to conflict between the two companies, with the Dutch gaining the upper hand in theMoluccas (previously a Portuguese stronghold) after the withdrawal of the English in 1622, but with the English enjoying more success in India, at Surat, after the establishment of a factory in 1613.

In 1757 Mir Jafar, the commander in chief of the army of the Nawab of Bengal, along with Jagat Seth, Maharaja Krishna Nath, UmiChandand some others, secretly connived with the British, asking support to overthrow the Nawab in return for trade grants. The British forces, whose sole duty until then was guarding Company property, were numerically inferior to the Bengali armed forces. At the Battle of Plasseyon 23 June 1757, fought between the British under the command of Robert Clive and the Nawab, Mir Jafar's forces betrayed the Nawab and helped defeat him. Jafar was installed on the throne as a British subservient ruler. The battle transformed British perspective as they realised their strength and potential to conquer smaller Indian kingdoms and marked the beginning of the imperial or colonial era inSouth Asia.

Bahadur Shah Zafar II – The Last Mughal Emperor (October 1775 – 7 November 1862)

The War of Independence - 1857

The Indian War of Independence also known as Indian Rebellion of 1857 refers to a rebellion in India against the rule of the British East India Company that ran from May 1857 to June 1858. The rebellion began as a mutiny of sepoys of the East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the cantonment of the town of Meerut, and soon escalated into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with the major hostilities confined to present-day Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, northern Madhya Pradesh, and the Delhi region. The rebellion posed a considerable threat to East India Company power in that region, and was contained only with the fall of Gwalior on 20 June 1858.

Indian War of Independence – 1857
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (17 October 1817 – 27 March 1898)

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (Urdu: سر سید احمد خان‎; 17 October 1817 – 27 March 1898), commonly known as Sir Syed, was an Indian Muslim pragmatist, Islamic modernist,philosopher and social activist of nineteenth century India. He worked for the British East India Company and was one of the founders of the Aligarh Muslim University. In 1842,Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar–II conferred upon Sir Syed the title of Javad-udDaulah, maintaining the title originally conferred upon Sir Syed's grandfather Syed Hadi byEmperor Shah Alam II around the middle of the 18th century.After the rebellion, he penned the booklet The Causes of the Indian Mutiny – a daring critique, at the time, of British policies that he blamed for causing the revolt. Believing that the future of Muslims was threatened by the rigidity of their orthodox outlook, Sir Syed began promoting Western–style scientific education by founding modern schools and journals and organizing Muslim entrepreneurs.

Political Awareness among Indians – Indian National Congress

The Congress was founded in 1885 by Indian and British members of the Theosophical Society movement, including Scotsman Allan Octavian Hume. It has been suggestedthat the idea was conceived in a private meeting of 17 men after a Theosophical Convention held in Madras in December 1884. Hume took the initiative, and in March 1885 the first notice convening the first Indian National Union to meet in Poona the following December was issued.

Its objective was to obtain a greater share in government for educated Indians and to create a platform for civic and political dialogue between educated Indians and the British Raj. The Congress met each December. The first meeting was scheduled to be held in Poona, but due to a cholera outbreak there it was shifted to Bombay. Hume organized the first meeting in Bombay with the approval of the Viceroy Lord Dufferin. Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee was the first president of the Congress; the first session was held from 28–31 December 1885, and was attended by 72 delegates. Representing each province of India, the Party's delegates comprised 54 Hindus and 2 Muslims; the rest were of Parsi and Jain backgrounds.

Political Awareness - The Indian National Congress was established in 1885

Rise of Muslim Nationalism in India – All India Muslim League

The All-India Muslim League (AIML) was formed with the help from thereformist Muslim Called As the Great Sheik Ahmad Muhammad who had great power and a strong mind set and vision for the world. His strong advocacy for British education and political activism had inspired upper classMuslims to support the cause for the AIML. Originally hosting the All-India Muhammadan Educational Conference in 1886 in a vision to uplift the cause for the British education especially science and literature, among India's Muslims. The conference, in addition to generating funds for Sir Syed'sAligarh Muslim University (AMU), motivated Muslim upper class to propose expansion of educational uplift elsewhere, known as the Aligarh Movement. In turn this new awareness of Muslim needs helped stimulate a political consciousness among Muslim elites that went on to form the AIML.The Founding meeting was hosted by Nawab Sir KhwajaSalimullah and attended by three thousand delegates, while Ameer Ali, Sir Mian Muhammad Shafi were also the founding fathers who attended this meeting. The name "All-India Muslim League" was proposed by Sir Agha Khan III, who was appointed its first president.

Allama Muhammad Iqbal (9 November 1877 -21 April 1938)

The Vision – Allama Iqbal

Sir Muhammad Iqbal (Urdu: محمد اقبال ‎) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938), widely knownas Allama Iqbal (علامہ اقبال), was a poet, philosopher, and politician, as well as an academic, barrister and scholar in British India who is widely regarded as having inspired thePakistan Movement. He is called the "Spiritual founder of Pakistan". He is considered one of the most important figures in Urdu literature, with literary work in both the Urdu andPersian languages.Iqbal is regarded as the person who envisioned the separate Muslim State of Pakistan.

Iqbal remained active in the Muslim League. He did not support Indian involvement in World War I and remained in close touch with Muslim political leaders such as Mohammad Ali Jouhar and Muhammad Ali Jinnah. He was a critic of the mainstream Indian National Congress, which he regarded as dominated by Hindus. Iqbal firmly believed that Jinnah was the only leader capable of drawing Indian Muslims.During the League's December 1930 session, he delivered his most famous presidential speech known as the Allahabad Address in which he pushed for the creation of a Muslim state in Northwest India.

The Leader – Quaid-i-Azam M. Ali Jinnah

Muhammad Ali Jinnah (Urdu: محمد علی جناح‎ Muḥammad Alī Jinnaḥ, born Mahomed ali Jinnah bhai; 25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan.[1] Jinnah served as leader of the All-India Muslim League from 1913 until Pakistan's independence on 14 August 1947, and then as Pakistan's first Governor-General from independence until his death. He is revered in Pakistan as Quaid-i-Azam(Urdu: قائد اعظم‎ Great Leader) and Baba-i-Qaum (Urdu: بابائے قوم‎ Father of the Nation). His birthday is observed as a national holiday.

Born in Karachi and trained as a barrister at Lincoln's Inn in London, Jinnah rose to prominence in the Indian National Congress in the first two decades of the 20th century. In these early years of his political career, Jinnah advocated Hindu–Muslim unity, helping to shape the 1916 Lucknow Pact between the Congress and the All-India Muslim League, in which Jinnah had also become prominent. Jinnah became a key leader in the All India Home Rule League, and proposed a fourteen-point constitutional reform plan to safeguard the political rights of Muslims. In 1920, however, Jinnah resigned from the Congress when it agreed to follow a campaign of ‘satyagraha’, or non-violent resistance, advocated byMohandas Gandhi.

By 1940, Jinnah had come to believe that Indian Muslims should have their own state. In that year, the Muslim League, led by Jinnah, passed the Lahore Resolution, demanding a separate nation. During the Second World War, the League gained strength while leaders of the Congress were imprisoned, and in the elections held shortly after the war, it won most of the seats reserved for Muslims. Ultimately, the Congress and the Muslim League could not reach a power-sharing formula for a united India, leading all parties to agree to separate independence of a predominantly Hindu India, and for a Muslim-majority state, to be called Pakistan.

Quaid-i-Azam M. Ali Jinnah

Independence – Creation of Pakistan

As British rule there drew to an end, many Muslims demanded, in the name of Islam, the creation of a separate Pakistan state. Its emergence in August 1947 remains one of the major political achievements of modern Muslim history. It resulted mainly from the efforts of one man,Mohammad Ali Jinnah.

Acknowledgement

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