Birth

Mohammad Ali Jinnah’s father Jinnah bhai Poonja (born 1850) was the youngest of three sons. He married a girl Mithibai with the consent of his parents and moved to the growing port of Karachi. There, the young couple rented an apartment on the second floor of a three-storey house, Wazir Mansion. The Wazir Mansion has since been rebuilt and made into a national monument and museum owing to the fact that the founder of the nation, and one of the greatest leaders of all times was born within its walls.

On December 25, 1876, Mithibai gave birth to a son, Mohammad Ali Jinnahhai; the first of seven children. The fragile infant who appeared so weak that it 'weighed a few pounds less than normal'. But Jinnah’s mother of was unusually fond of her little boy, insisting he would grow up to be an achiever

Jinnah’s father - Jinnah bhai Poonja
Wazir Mansion - Quaid-i-Azam M. Ali Jinnah was born and spent his childhood in this house

Education

Officially named Mahomed ali Jinnah bhai, his father enrolled him in school when he was six -- the Sindh Madrasatul-Islam; Jinnah was indifferent to his studies and loathed arithmetic, preferring to play outdoors with his friends. His father was especially keen towards his studying arithmetic as it was vital in his business.

By the early 1880s' Jinnah bhai Poonja's trade business had prospered greatly. He handled all sorts of goods: cotton, wool, hides, oil-seeds, and grain for export. Whereas Manchester manufactured piece of goods, metals, refined sugar and used to import into the busy port. Business was good and profits were soaring high.

Sindh Madressatul Islam – Quaid-i-Azam M. Ali Jinnah’s alma mater
Bombay in 1900

Schooling in Bombay and Return

In 1887, Jinnahbhai's only sister came to visit from Bombay. Jinnah was very fond of his Aunt and vice versa. She offered to take her nephew back with her in order to give him a chance of better education at the metropolitan city Bombay, that was much to his mother's dismay who could not bear the thought of being separated from her undisputedly favorite child. Jinnah joined Gokal Das Tej Primary School in Bombay. His spirited brain rebelled inside the typical Indian primary school which relied mostly on the method of learning by rote. He remained in Bombay for only six months, returned to Karachi upon his mother's insistence and joined the Sind Madrassa. But his name was struck off as he frequently cut classes in order to ride his father's horses. He was fascinated by the horses and lured towards them. He also enjoyed reading poetry at his own leisure. As a child Jinnah was never intimidated by the authority and was not easy to control.

He then joined the Christian Missionary Society High School where his parents thought his restless mind could be focused.

Young Jinnah was fascinated by the horses and he would frequently cut classes in order to ride his father’s horse. He also enjoyed reading poetry.

Apprenticeship Offer in London

Karachi proved more prosperous for young Jinnah than Bombay had been. His father's business had prospered so much by this time that he had his own stables and carriages. Jinnahbhai Poonja's firm was closely associated with the leading British managing agency in Karachi, Douglas Graham and Company. Sir Frederick Leigh Croft, the general manager of the company, had a great influence over young Jinnah, which possibly lasted his entire life.

Sir Frederick Leigh Croft, Friend of Jinnah’s father and General Manager of Douglas Graham and Company, offered young Jinnah apprenticeship at his office in London

Jinnah looked up to the handsome, well dressed and a successful man. Sir Frederick liked Mamad, recognizing his extreme potential, he offered him an apprenticeship at his office in London. That kind of opportunity was the dream of all young boys of India, but the privilege went to only one in a million. Sir Frederick had truly picked one in a million when he chose Jinnah.

Soon after his arrival in London, Jinnah gave up the apprenticeship in order to study law. The aspiring barrister joined Lincoln's Inn, later stating that the reason he chose Lincoln's over the other Inns of Court was that over the main entrance to Lincoln's Inn were the names of the world's great lawgivers, including Muhammad.

On March 30, 1895 Jinnah applied to Lincoln's Inn Council for the alteration of his name the Books of Society from MahomedalliJinnahbhai to Mahomed Alli Jinnah, which he anglicized to M.A. Jinnah. This was granted to him in April 1895.

After joining Lincoln's Inn in June 1893, he developed further interest in politics. He thought the world of politics was 'glamorous' and often went to the House of Commons and marveled at the speeches he heard there. Although his father was furious when he learnt of Jinnah's change in plan regarding his career, there was little he could do to alter what his son had made his mind up for. At that point in life Jinnah was totally alone in his decisions, with no moral support from his father or any help from Sir Frederick. In 1895, at age 19, he became the youngest Indian to be called to the bar in England.

Lincoln’s Inn, London – Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah became the youngest Indian to be called to the bar in 1895.

London

Career - London Jinnah left for England in January 1893, landed at Southampton, catching the boat train to Victoria Station. "During the first few months I found a strange country and unfamiliar surroundings," he recalled. "I did not know a soul and the fogs and winter in London upset me a great deal". He worked at Graham's for a while surrounded by stacks of account books he was expected to copy and balance. His father had deposited enough money in his account in a British bank to last for three years of his stay in London. He took a room as houseguest in a modest three-story house at 35 Russell Road in Kensington.

He arrived in London in February 1893 and after two months he left Graham's on April 25 of that year to join Lincoln's Inn, one of the oldest and well reputed legal societies that prepared students for the Bar. On June 25, 1893, he embarked on his study of the law at Lincoln's Inn. His quest for general books especially on politics and biographies led him to apply to the British Museum Library and he became a subscriber of the Museum Library. The two years of "reading" apprenticeship that he spent in barrister's chambers was the most important element in Jinnah's legal education.

He used to follow his master's professional footsteps outside the chambers as well. When Jinnah landed at Southampton, it was the peak of British power and influence in the world. The Victorian era was about to end and a new economic order was struggling to be born. Young Jinnah was greatly affected by the life in what was then called, "the greatest capital of the world", where people had more freedom to pursue what they believed in. Apart from his upbringing according to the traditions and ethics of a religious family, the Victorian moral code not only colored his social behavior but also greatly affected his professional conduct as a practicing lawyer. Jinnah's political beliefs and personal demeanor as a public man in India for four decades clearly indicate that his training, education and life in London profoundly influenced his way of life. It was that influence and training that helped him a great deal in presenting the most important case of his life and eventually led him to win that case a free country for the Muslims of the subcontinent.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah

In London, he received the tragic news of the death of his mother and first wife. Nevertheless, he completed his formal studies and also made a study of the British political system by frequently visiting the House of Commons. He was the youngest student ever to be called to the Bar.

"It was in London that he acquired love of personal freedom and national independence. Inspired by the British democratic principles and fired by a new faith in supremacy of law, liberalism and constitutionalism became twin tools of Jinnah's political creed which he daringly but discreetly used during the rest of his life." Aziz Beg, Jinnah and his Times.

He was greatly influenced by the liberalism of William E. Gladstone, who had become prime minister for the fourth time in 1892.

Jinnah also took keen interest in the political affairs of India. He was extremely conscious of the lack of a strong voice from India in the British Parliament. So, when the Parsi leader DadabhaiNaoroji, a leading Indian nationalist, ran for the British Parliament, it created a wave of enthusiasm among Indian students in London. Naoroji became the first Indian to sit in the House of Commons. Naoroji's victory acted as a stimulus for Jinnah to lay the foundation of the "political career" that he had in his mind.

Jinnah was a marvelous speaker and was recognized as a balanced and reasoned debater. His power of speech had an ability to mesmerize the audience. Frank Moraes, an eminent Indian journalist, painted Jinnah's skills and attributes, "watch him in the courtroom as he argues a case. Few lawyers command a more attentive audience. No man is more adroit in presenting his case. If to achieve the maximum results with the minimum effort is the hallmark of artistry, Mr. Jinnah is an artist in his craft. The drab courtroom acquires an atmosphere as he speaks. Juniors crane their necks forward to follow every movement of the tall, well-groomed figure, senior counsels listen closely, and the judge is all attention".

BOMBAY (1896-1910)

Jinnah left London for India in 1896. He decided to go to Bombay after a brief stay in Karachi. He opted for Bombay because it offered scope for the exercise of his legal faculties and ground for his political ambitions. Bombay had the brightest constellation of India's lawyer-politicians, at that time. Ranade, Badruddin, Tyabji, Gandhi, Tilak, Gokhale, Cowasji, DadabhoyNaoroji, Bholabhai Desai, Wacha, Nariman and many more renowned men were based in Bombay.

He was enrolled as a barrister in Bombays' high court on August 24, 1896. He took up lodgings in Room No.110 of Apollo Hotel. Father's business had suffered serious losses by then, and he could hardly get any brief for a year or so but he never stopped helping the poor and needy, even in his precarious financial position. In a letter to the Times of India, Bombay, the June 10, 1910 issue, he appealed to the well-off section of the Muslim Community in Bombay to aid a Muslim orphanage in the city. He donated a handsome amount to the orphanage at a time when his practice was not even flourishing. By 1900, he was introduced to Bombay's acting advocate-general, John Molesworth McPherson, and was invited to work with him in his office. But soon he succeeded in crossing all the hurdles to become a leading lawyer of India. He won many famous cases through powerful advocacy and legal logic.

In politics, he admired DadabhaiNaoroji and another brilliant Parsi leader Sir Pherozeshah Mehta. It was Pherozeshah Mehta, who entrusted him to defend him in the famous Caucus Case. Jinnah hit the headlines in this case; it was remarkable how a 62-year-old statesman of the Congress and an eminent lawyer had entrusted his defence to a young Muslim barrister.

Jinnah's career as a lawyer is full of marvelous legal victories. Either it was the Sapru-Jinnah encounter in Bhopal high court or the famous Bawla murder trial of 1925; a legal case against the great Hindu leader Bal GanghadharTilak or his last case in 1945 where he defended Bishen Lal at Agra; Jinnah always proved to be the most enviably popular counsel.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Sir Stafford Cripps called Jinnah the most accomplished lawyer -- outstanding amongst Indian lawyers and a fine constitutionalist. As a fellow barrister of Bombay High Court put it, "he was what God made him, a great leader. He had sixth sense: he could see around corners. That is where his talents lay, he was a very clear thinker. But he drove his points home -- points chosen with exquisite selection --show delivery, word by word."

Joachim Alva said "he cast a spell on the courtroomhead erect, unruffled by the worst circumstances. He has been our boldest advocate." Jinnah's most famous legal apprentice M.C. Chagla, the first Indian Muslim to be appointed chief justice of the Bombay High Court said, "What impressed me the most was the lucidity of his thought and expression. There were no obscure spots or ambiguities about what Jinnah had to tell the court. He was straight and forthright, and always left a strong impression whether his case was intrinsically good or bad. I remember sometimes at a conference he would tell the solicitor that his case was hopeless, but when he went to the court he fought like a tiger, and almost made me believe that he had changed his opinion. Whenever I talked to him afterwards about it, he would say that it was the duty of an advocate, however bad the case might be, to do the best for his client". He reminisced that Jinnah's 'presentation of a case' was nothing less than a piece of art."

Jinnah appeared in the annual session of the All India Congress, Calcutta, 1906. DadabhaiNaoroji presided over the session with Jinnah serving as his secretary. In his speech Dadabhai called the partition of Bengal a "bad blunder for England" and addressed the growing distance between the Hindus and the Muslims in the aftermath of partition. He called for a thorough political union among the Indian people of all creeds and classes. "The thorough union, therefore, of all the people for their emancipation is an absolute necessity. They must sink or swim together. Without this union, all efforts will be vain."

Jinnah reiterated this call for national unity at every political meeting he attended in those years, and he emerged as true Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity. He met India's poetess Sarojini Naidu at that Calcutta Congress, who was instantly captivated by the stunning appearance and rare temperament of India's rising lawyer and upcoming politician

Jinnah’s Famous Cases

The Caucus Case – Jinnah Wins a Monumental Case

In 1907, the general elections to the Bombay Municipal Corporation were to take place. At that time, one of the constituencies was that of the Justices of Peace for the town and island of Bombay. They had to return 16 members. Sir Pherozeshah Mehta was consistently returned for many years by that constituency. Pherozeshah had by his services both inside and outside the Corporation acquired a commanding position in the deliberations of the Corporation. Some European members as well as the then Municipal Commissioner, Mr. Sheppard, formed a clique which was in those days called the ‘caucus’ to defeat Pherozeshah at the polls. Harrison, the Accountant-General, Gell, the Police Commissioner and Lovat Fraser, the then Editor of The Times of India took a leading and active part in the campaign. The poll was taken in the Municipal Hall on February 21, 1907 at a meeting of the Justices when the Municipal Commissioner, Sheppard presided. The result was declared the next day and 16 ‘caucus’ ticket candidates succeeded and Pherozeshah Mehta stood seventeenth.

Public indignation on the declaration of the result was very great. The l6 person who got in, was Suleman Abdul Waheed of Ladha Ibrahim & Co., who had contracts with the Municipal Act, disqualified from being aCouncilor. A petition was presented to the Chief Election Judge to declare that he was disqualified from being a Councilor and that Sir Pherozeshah Mehta, who stood 17 got automatically elected to the Corporation. Mr. Jinnah represented Sir Pherozeshah Mehta. Mr. Jinnah’s cross-examination of witnesses especially of Lovat Fraser, Editor of Times was devastating. Mr. Jinnah urged that: - Mr. Haji Noormahomed gave his vote to Sir Pherozeshah on the first occasion, and exhausted his right of voting.

Sir Pherozeshah Mehta

On the second occasion when he voted for all the 16 candidates he acted contrary to law. A second illegal act could not destroy the legality of the first. The Counsel cited the case of Queen vs. Avery in support of his argument. Mr. Jinnah’s contentions were accepted by the learned judge and Sir Pherozeshah was declared as duly elected to the Corporation. By getting the verdict in favor of Sir Pherozeshah Mehta, Mr. Jinnah was recognized as one of the leading lawyers.

Bal GangadharTilak

Bal GangadharTilak’s Case

When Bal GangadharTilak, prominent Indian National leader, was convicted for sedition, Mr. Jinnah appeared in the Appeal before the Division Bench of Bombay High Court and drew a distinction between disaffection and disapprobation. The sentence was set aside. Mr. Jinnah’s legal acumen was acknowledged all over India. An attractive and 12 Pakistan Journal of History & Culture, Vol. XXVIII, No.1, 2007 illustrated book THE BOMBAY HIGH COURT 1878-2003 was published by the august Court through its heritage Committee consisting of eminent judges and leading lawyers in its introduction — Hall of Justice — it is stated: “In 1914, Tilak was prosecuted again on charges of sedition. This time, his legal counsel was Mohammad Ali Jinnah, a renowned lawyer of the Bombay Bar and a leader in the Indian National Congress. Jinnah was convinced that Tilak had been prosecuted for his strong views about Home Rule and independence for India and defended him so adroitly that Tilak was acquitted by the High Court.”

Some Leading Cases

In the suit of Haji Bibi concerning the Aga Khan, which is considered the longest suit in Bombay’s legal history, Mr. Jinnah represented Shams Uddin, one of the contesting defendants. The magnitude of the case may be gathered from the fact that voluminous evidence on commission was taken at various places all over the world, and as many as 128 issues were raised therein. In the well-known defamation case of B.G. Horniman, Jinnah’s masterly handling led to the conviction of the editor, printer and publisher of the paper, Briton. Where Oscar Wilde had failed in a somewhat similar case, Horniman succeeded due to Jinnah’s skill.

In the Bowla Murder case, which arose out of the infatuation of the Maharajah of Indore for Mumtaz, the then Beauty Queen of India, and in which, at one stage, the well- known British criminal lawyer, Marshall Hall, was being brought in, Mr. Jinnah appeared for the main accused, and at least saved him from the gallows. In the Jitekar Trust Suit, Mr. Jinnah dealt with the doctrines of Hanafi and Shafae Law.

In RanchoodNarain and Ajoba and a number of other suits, Mr. Jinnah analyzed certain aspects of Hindu Law, and its different schools, in considerable detail. In 1921, Mr. Jinnah appeared for the petitioners to obtain a mandamus certiorari or other appropriate writ to quash various resolutions of the Bombay Corporation. This being the first case of its kind, the Court was reluctant to issue the writ.

In the case of the assassination of the author of ‘RangilaRasool’, the assailant, Ilam Din, had been sentenced to death. In the appeal, Jinnah, representing him, pleaded that provocation coupled with the youth of the accused were good grounds for not inflicting the death penalty.

The British Judges, however, did not allow any weight to these submissions; and the young man was executed. But since then Lahore has rarely seen such a procession of mourners as accompanied his funeral.

Quaid-i-Azam, M. Ali Jinnah was a successful lawyer. His legal career spans almost five decades. He fought his last case in 1945. He lost his only case in 1929 – Ilam Din Case

Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah as a Lawyer 13 In Salim Khatoon versus ArshadurRehman, Mr. Jinnah faced Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru before the Hyderabad High Court. In the suit of the Raja of Nanpara, Jinnah appeared for the plaintiff and with his usual skill and ability, obtained a favourable decree that was upheld by the Privy Council. Mr. Jinnah represented the Editor of the Bombay Chronicle in an ease of contempt of court. He defended PirPagaro in the trial court as well as in the appeal. In the Bhopal Waqf case, Choudhry Naimatullah, a distinguished counsel, advanced a scholarly argument. But Jinnah’s legal objection prevailed.

Family

Poonjabhai “Jinno” Thakkar (1857–1902) father of founder of Pakistan Muhammad Ali Jinnah, was married to Mithhibai. Poonjabhai Thakkar was a prosperous Gujarati merchant. He moved to Karachi from Kathiawar, because of his business partnership with Grams Trading Company whose regional office was set up in Karachi. He moved to Karachi before Muhammad Ali Jinnah's birth. He and his wife had 7 children:

  • Muhammad Ali Jinnah
  • Ahmed Ali Jinnah
  • Bunde Ali Jinnah
  • Rahmat Bai Jinnah
  • Shireen Jinnah
  • Ms Fatima Jinnah
  • Maryam Bai Jinnah
Jinnah bhai Poonjha

Mithibai Jinnah: Mother

Mithibai was married to Poonja Jinnah around 1874 and moved to the growing port of Karachi. There, the young couple rented an apartment on the second floor of a three-storeyhouse, Wazir Mansion. The Wazir Mansion has since been rebuilt and made into a national monument and museum owing to the fact that the founder of the nation, and one of the greatest leaders of all times was born within its walls.

On December 25, 1876, Mithibai gave birth to a son, the first of seven children. The fragile infant who appeared so weak that it 'weighed a few pounds less than normal'. But Mithibai was unusually fond of her little boy, insisting he would grow up to be an achiever. She died soon after Jinnah’s Journey to London for higher education during 1893-97.

Jinnah’s Uncles and Aunt

Jinnah’s Grandfather had 4 children. Walji, Nahto, and Jinnah. Jinnah was Quaid’s father and youngest of the sons. They had a sister, named Man Bai. M. Ali Jinnah and his siblings would call her “Poofi” (Phophi: Urdu word meaning Paternal Aunt). She lived in Bombay with her husband. She had a similar cordial relation with Jinnah’s father (her youngest brother) as Ms. Fatima Jinnah would have with M. Ali Jinnah. She would read bed time stories to her nephews and nieces, when she would visit his brother. She once took young Jinnah to Bombay when he was 10.

Jinnah with sister Ms Fatima Jinnah

Fatima Jinnah: Sister

Fatima Jinnah (Urdu: فاطمہ جناح‎; 30 July 1893 – 9 July 1967) was a Pakistani dental surgeon, biographer, stateswoman and one of the leading founders of Pakistan. After obtaining a dental degree from University of Calcutta, she became a close associate and an adviser to her older brother Muhammad Ali Jinnah who later became the first Governor General of Pakistan. A strong critic of the British Raj, she emerged as a strong advocate of the two nation theory and a leading member of the All-India Muslim League. After the independence of Pakistan, Jinnah co-founded the Pakistan Women's Association which significantly played an integral role in the settlement of the migrants in the newly formed country. After the death of her brother, she continued to remain a prominent philanthropist and politician.

Emibai Jinnah: The First Wife

Emibai Jinnah (1878 – 1893), was the first cousin and first wife of Muhammad Ali Jinnahfrom 1892 until her death. When she became 14 years old, Jinnah's mother Mithibai Jinnah was urging him to marry his cousin Emibai Jinnah. Jinnah fulfilled his mother urge and married Emibai at the age of 16 at Paneli Village. She died few months later after Muhammad Ali Jinnah left to England for higher studies. Struck by the tragedy, he did not marry for a long time. After 25 years (aged 40 – 41), he married Maryam Jinnah(1900 – 1929) as his second wife on April 19, 1918 until her death on February 20, 1929.

Ruttie Jinnah Wife

Rattanbai(Maryam) Jinnah: Wife

Rattanbai "Ruttie" Petit Jinnah / Maryam Jinnah (Gujarati: રતનબાઇ પેતીત; "The Flower of Bombay"); February 20, 1900 – February 20, 1929), was the second wife of Muhammad Ali Jinnah—an important figure in the Indian Independence Movement and later founder of Pakistan.

She was the only daughter of Sir Dinshaw Petit, who in turn, was the son of DinshawManeckji Petit, member of Petit family and the founder of the first cotton mills in India. The Petits were textile magnates and one of Bombay's wealthiest Parsi families.

Jinnah with sister Ms Fatima Jinnah

M. Ali Jinnah’s Sisters

RJinnah had three more sisters besides Fatima Jinnah. Rahmatbai Jinnah, Shireen Jinnah, Maryam Bai Jinnah, and Fatima Jinnah. Fatima Jinnah writes in her book ‘My Brother’ that His father would teach her and her sisters English at night with strict discipline as if we were at school. Being native of Kathiyawar, they would speak Gujrati, but after shifting to Karachi, they learnt Sindhi and Kachhi fluently. Similarly, due to his father’s trading with Afghan Merchants, Her father learnt Persian as well. (Source: My Brother by Ms. Fatima Jinnah)

Dina Jinnah: Daughter

Dina Wadia (born Dina Jinnah August 15, 1919) is the daughter and only child of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the Founder of Pakistan.She was his sole comfort after the death of his wife. Though away at school most of the time, she was home briefly for holidays. A dark eyed beauty, she was a charming young girl. She had her mother's smile and was pampered by her doting father. After her mother's death, Fatima took the responsibility of her care.

While living in London, Dina would cajole and pester her father to take her to a pantomime on High Road insisting that she was on holidays and must be entertained. The time was a blissful one spent in London. But they later grew apart, Dina never joined her father in Pakistan. She came to Karachi only for his funeral.

The relationship was marred by the fact that Dina wanted to marry a Parsi-born Christian, Neville Wadia. Jinnah tried to dissuade her, just like Sir Dinshaw had tried to influence his daughter many years ago, but to no avail. Justice Chagla recalls, “Jinnah, in his usual imperious manner, told her that there were millions of Muslim boys in India, and she could have anyone she chose. Then the young ladyreplied: 'Father, there were millions of Muslim girls in India. Why did you not marry one of them?'

The relationship became formal after she married. They did correspond, he addressed her formally as 'Mrs. Wadia'.

Dina and Neville lived in Bombay and had two children, a boy and a girl. Shortly after that they separated.

Jinnah's Daughter - Dina Jinnah

Ahmed Ali Jinnah: Brother

Jinnah’s younger brother Ahmed Ali Jinnah lived in London and married an English Woman Emmy Jinnah. They had a daughter.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah's Brother

Death – The Last Journey

From the 1930s, Jinnah suffered from tuberculosis; only his sister and a few others close to him were aware of his condition. Jinnah believed public knowledge of his lung ailments would hurt him politically. In a 1938 letter, he wrote to a supporter that "you must have read in the papers how during my tours ... I suffered, which was not because there was anything wrong with me, but the irregularities [of the schedule] and over-strain told upon my health".

In June 1948, he and Fatima flew to Quetta, in the mountains of Baluchistan, where the weather was cooler than in Karachi. He could not completely rest there, addressing the officers at the Command and Staff College saying, "you, along with the other Forces of Pakistan, are the custodians of the life, property and honor of the people of Pakistan." On 6 July 1948, Jinnah returned to Quetta, but at the advice of doctors, soon journeyed to an even higher retreat at Ziarat.

Jinnah died at 10:20 pm at his home in Karachi on 11 September 1948 at the age of 71, just over a year after Pakistan's creation. M. Ali Jinnah, known as Quaid-e-Azam or the ‘Great Leader’ died on 11th September 1947 after living an eventful life, achieving his goal of establishing a free, sovereign state for Muslims of India.Condolence Messages poured in from around the world. Thousands attended the funeral of the great leader. Shabbir Ahmed Usmani, a renowned Islamic Scholar led the funeral prayer. He was laid to rest on 12th September, 1948.

Fatima Jinnah and Quaid's daughter Dina (extreme left) weep as the body of the Quaid is being lowered in the grave, 12th September 1948
The Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah , who changed the destiny of the Muslims of the South-Asia Subcontinent, breathed his last on 11 September, 1948
Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani led the funeral prayers of Quaid-i-Azam M. Ali Jinnah

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